Lawyer Biography: Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln: Sixteenth President Of The USA

Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky. He had very little formal schooling and was mostly self-educated. He eventually became a lawyer and a Republican politician; he earned the nickname "Honest Abe."
Abraham Lincoln, Lawyer
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States. He was known for his opposition of the expansion of slavery. He was born on February 12th, 1809 and died on April 15th, 1865 - while he was still the President. He won the Republican Party nomination in 1860 and was elected president in 1861.

He was instrumental in preserving the United States as a country by defeating the Confederate States of America - the secessionists. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 - effectively abolishing slavery. He promoted and supported the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865, which abolished and prohibited slavery.
Lincoln's leadership qualities were seen during the American Civil war. He selected Ulysses S. Grant and other top generals. He put the leaders of various factions of the Republican party into his cabinet - forcing them to cooperate with him. In 1861, he defused a potential war with the United Kingdom. He helped take control of the border slave states between 1861 and 1862, outmaneuvering the Confederacy.
Abraham Lincoln was born to two uneducated farmers - Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln in a one room log cabin southeast of Hardin County, Kentucky. He was named after his grandfather who was killed by an Indian raid in 1786. Experts still debate that Lincoln might have had Marfan syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, giving the person long limbs and great physical stature.
Abraham Lincoln had only 18 months of formal schooling. He educated himself by reading every book he could get his hands on. His favorite book was "The Life of George Washington". He developed a writing style that was plain compared to the grandiloquent rhetoric at the time.
At the age of 23, Lincoln began is political career. He was unsuccessful in his campaign for the Illinois General Assembly. In 1834, he won election to the state legislature. He read the "Commentaries on the Laws of England" and began to teach himself law. He was admitted to the bar in 1837 and moved to Springfield, Illinois. He began to practice law with John T. Stuart and gained a reputation of a formidable adversary during cross-examinations and his closing arguments. He became one of the most respected and successful lawyers in Illinois and steadily grew more prosperous.
On November 6, 1860, Lincoln won the election and became the 16th President of the United States. He was the first Republican to be elected as president. He was not even on the ballot in the nine states of the South and won only 2 of the 996 counties in the other Southern states. His support mainly came from the North vote.
Lincoln managed his own landslide reelection in the 1864 presidential election with powerful rhetoric. Abraham Lincoln was known for his messages and speeches. The Gettysburg Address is one of the many speeches that people still remember him by. His assassination in 1865 made him the first martyr for the ideal of national unity in US history. Lincoln is usually ranked as one of the top three US Presidents by academics - most of them placed him as number one.

Interesting facts about Abraham Lincoln

Lincoln created the Secret Service hours before his assassination. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln signed legislation creating the U.S. Secret Service. That evening, he was shot at Ford’s Theatre. Even if the Secret Service had been established earlier, it wouldn’t have saved Lincoln: The original mission of the law enforcement agency was to combat widespread currency counterfeiting. It was not until 1901, after the killing of two other presidents, that the Secret Service was formally assigned to protect the commander-in-chief.
Lincoln personally test-fired rifles outside the White House. Lincoln was a hands-on commander-in-chief who, given his passion for gadgetry, was keenly interested in the artillery used by his Union troops during the Civil War. Lincoln attended artillery and cannon tests and met at the White House with inventors demonstrating military prototypes. Although there was a standing order against firing weapons in the District of Columbia.
Lincoln was only in the forefront of American Politics for 6 short years but, in that time he became the most hated and the most loved president in the history of the United States. He was credited with tearing the country apart and bringing it back together and he changed this country forever.
Abraham Lincoln was always fascinated with machines and held the patent for a device that was created for keeping shipping vessels buoyant over shoals. The patent number was 6469, and it was issued on May 22, 1849.
Abraham Lincoln argued a case in front of the United States Supreme Court - and lost.  After serving a term in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln returned to his self-proclaimed profession of “prairie lawyer” in Illinois.  He took cases dealing with everything from homicide to navigation rights to slave laws.  An arcane statute dispute brought him to the high chamber on March 7, 1849.   He argued on behalf of Thomas Lewis, a public administrator who had taken over the affairs of a man named Broadwell, who had sold 100 acres of land that he did not own and then died.  The true grit of the case was the question of whether or not the plaintiff, William Lewis (no relation), could still sue for damages regarding the poisoned contract or if the statute of limitations had already passed.  Lincoln claimed that William’s action came too late, and that Thomas could no longer be held liable.  After two days of hearings and five days of deliberations, the justices decided against Lincoln.  Despite this defeat, the prairie lawyer was becoming one of the most respected and feared litigants in Illinois.  
Lincoln married Mary Todd in 1842; they had four sons, but only one (Robert) survived childhood.
Lincoln lost five separate elections before being elected president. For Lincoln, electoral successes had to be taken hand-in-hand with failures.  Since losing his first race for the Illinois General Assembly in 1832 he had gone on to lose a race for the U.S. Congress, two races for the U.S. Senate, and one campaign for a vice-presidential nomination.  
Abraham Lincoln had a dream about his own assassination, which he shared with his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, days before the actual event.

Abraham Lincoln Famous Quotes

"Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt."

"Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves; and, under a just God, can not long retain it."

"In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free -- honorable alike in what we give, and what we preserve. We shall nobly save, or meanly lose, the last best hope of earth. Other means may succeed; this could not fail. The way is plain, peaceful, generous, just -- a way which, if followed, the world will forever applaud, and God must forever bless."

"Whenever I hear any one arguing for slavery I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally."

“Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a men’s character, give him power.”

"You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time."

“Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other one thing.”

Suits TV Show New Season: Suits Season 6 Returns This Summer

Suits The TV Series Update: Seasons 1,2,3,4 and 5 Summary

Suits is a USA Network television drama series created by Aaron Korsh, starring Patrick J. Adams as Michael "Mike" Ross and Gabriel Macht as Harvey Specter. The series is set at the fictional law firm Pearson Hardman (Pearson Darby since Season 2) in New York City, follows Ross after he stumbles into a job interview with Specter, who is searching for an associate. Ross is undoubtedly the best candidate for the position, a position he obtains without having a law degree.

Suits, TV Show,series, New Season,1,2,3,4,5,6 lawyer, attorney,
Suits New Season 

Suits: First Season 

Mike Ross (Patrick J. Adams) is a brilliant college dropout. With his natural intelligence and eidetic memory, he makes a living taking the LSAT for others. To make the money he needs to keep his grandmother in a private nursing home, he agrees to deliver a case of marijuana for his best friend Trevor (Tom Lipinski). Harvey Specter (Gabriel Macht) is one of New York City's top corporate lawyers and is promoted to senior partner at Pearson Hardman - a law firm that hires only Harvard Law School graduates. He is forced by company policy to hire an associate attorney. Mike discovers that the drug delivery is a sting operation and escapes the police by accidentally sitting for an interview with Harvey. Harvey is impressed with Mike's quick wit, encyclopedic knowledge of law, and genuine desire to be an attorney; he hires Mike and pretends that Mike is a Harvard Law graduate. Only Harvey's legal secretaryand confidant Donna Paulsen (Sarah Rafferty) knows the secret.

At the firm, junior partner Louis Litt (Rick Hoffman), Harvey's jealous rival and direct supervisor of the associates, is suspicious of Mike's Harvard credentials. Meanwhile, Mike struggles to distance himself from Trevor, who has stopped dealing drugs but cannot escape his past. When Trevor leaves the state, Mike begins dating Trevor's ex-girlfriend Jenny Griffith (Vanessa Ray). Mike befriendsparalegal Rachel Zane (Meghan Markle) at the office, and the two soon develop a mutual attraction, complicating his relationship with Jenny. Trevor returns to New York, only to learn that Mike is dating Jenny. In retaliation, he tells the firm's managing partner Jessica Pearson (Gina Torres) about Mike's lack of a degree.

Suits: Second Season

Founder Daniel Hardman (David Costabile) returns to the firm, and Jessica and Harvey fear he wishes to return to his former position as managing partner. Because of this, Jessica allows Mike to continue working, despite discovering his secret. Meanwhile, Jenny confronts Mike about his feelings for Rachel, and when Mike hesitates in his response, Jenny breaks up with him. At the firm, Travis Tanner (Eric Close) accuses Harvey of burying evidence and is determined to have Harvey disbarred. Donna finds the missing document and realizes she had signed in the document and then lost it; she panics and destroys the document. She is fired by Jessica shortly after. Hardman is able to blackmail Tanner into dropping Harvey's disbarment from the settlement, and Hardman's decision to settle or Jessica's decision to go to trial is put to vote. With the partners' evenly split, Harvey, who has the deciding vote, and realizing the trial will jeopardize everyone at the firm, votes to settle, unwittingly siding with Hardman over Jessica so the firm can move past the lawsuit. This causes Hardman to call a partner vote and challenge Jessica for the position as managing partner. Soon after, Hardman promotes Louis to senior partner, and both Harvey and Jessica fail to definitively win Louis' support. Hardman becomes managing partner, but it is short lived as Mike and Harvey discover that Hardman forged and planted the document that Harvey and Donna supposedly buried. He is voted out of the firm, and Jessica regains the managing partner position. Immediately after his grandmother's death, Mike tries to start a relationship with Rachel, but she is reluctant. Mike then begins a romantic entanglement with his, now married, first love and childhood friend Tess (Elisabeth Hower) who was in town for the funeral. Rachel, who has now decided that she was willing to have a relationship with Mike, discovers them together. Mike ends the entanglement.
A week after the dust settles from the Hardman incident, Mike tries to repair his relationship with Rachel, and a new case arises that hits home for Mike. He has to deal with the struggles of defending a hit and run case similar to his childhood experience of losing his own parents. Louis Litt, relishing his new Senior Partner title, takes it upon himself to hire his own first year associate, who just may poke some holes in Mike's story about his time at Harvard. Harvey realizing this, goes to Jessica, who stops Louis from hiring the associate, giving the excuse of a "hiring freeze". Hardman returns to battle with his old firm, working as a contract lawyer for Rachel's father, the famous trial attorney Robert Zane. Rachel, at this point, is applying for admission to Harvard Law. Hardman strains Jessica's already low resources even further as she and Harvey are forced to try multiple gender discrimination suits, against Folsom Foods, in different locations. Scottie returns after stealing some of the firm's discrimination lawsuits. Eventually, Harvey convinces Jessica and Scottie that both firms should jointly fight the 45 discriminating cases. Jessica is also offered a possible merger deal with another NY firm managed by Robert Zane, famous trial attorney and father of Rachel; who, later, takes back the offer after discovering from Jessica that Daniel seems to hold all the cards to crush her firm with the Folsom Foods rocket docket cases. In the end, Jessica begins accepting a second possible merge offer with Scottie's U.K. firm. Agreeing to such a merger would allow Jessica to finally end Daniel's attack. By law, Jessica is required to hand over the firm's financial documents to possible merger partners. This would allow the British partner to threaten to reveal Daniel's past without Jessica breaching her confidentiality contract with Daniel. This stops Daniel in his tracks. Harvey, whose goal is to earn the title of named partner on merit rather than be given it by extenuating circumstances, becomes angry at this impending merger news and his and Jessica's plans for the future clash. In the end a deal to merge goes through with Harvey learning his place as a senior partner for now in order to be shown he can be controlled. Rachel, after having been informed of her denial of admission, forces Mike to reveal that he did not attend Harvard Law.

Suits TV Show: Third Season 

Things become very, very bad between Harvey (Gabriel Macht) and Mike (Patrick J. Adams). Their disagreement from the Season 2 finale doesn't go away -- it only escalates. "Harvey lets Mike go. He's done with him," Macht said. "Mike asks for forgiveness but Harvey doesn't want any of it."

Harvey is so over Mike, in fact, that he is willing to let the oft-hated Louis Litt (Rick Hoffman) steal Mike away after two seasons of failed efforts.

Fortunately, Mike will have other things to distract him from his broken relationship with Harvey. Namely, Mike will have Rachel (Meghan Markle). At the end of Season 2, these two flirts finally gave in to their mutual interest -- and then Mike divulged his big "I'm not really a legal lawyer" secret to her.

"Rachel knows his secret now, all the cards are on the table," Markle explained. "It's about deciding if they want to do this -- and if so, how."

Power is shifting and lines are crossed in the gripping third season of "Suits." Following the firm’s merger with a prestigious British business, loyalties are tested between high-powered counsel Harvey Specter (Gabriel Macht), legal prodigy Mike Ross (Patrick J. Adams), and their boss, managing partner Jessica Pearson (Gina Torres). 

At end of this season Mike realizes he will never be able to make a name for himself in law with the threat of his fraud being discovered, and considers a career change. In the season three finale, Mike is arrested, which may expose him, and Harvey and Louis try to free him. Mike realizes the problems his situation causes for the firm, however, and decides to take a job offer as an investment banker to resolve things. This new job makes Mike a client of the firm, and he jokes with Harvey, telling him that Harvey now technically works for him.

Suits TV Show: Fourth Season Summary

Suits Season 4 picks up with Mike in his new role as an investment banker and client of the law firm he just left. Mike's not the only one who will be in a new position when the Suits returns. Rachel's (Meghan Markle) attending law school while working for Harvey as his associate. That will certainly create some intriguing complications for their romance.

In the season premiere, "One-Two-Three Go...," Mike and Harvey struggle to adjust to their new business relationship when they don't see eye-to-eye on a deal Mike wants to pursue. Their game play will put their attorney-client status at risk.

Harvey is accused of colluding by the SEC. A team led by Sean Cahill (Neal McDonough), who is determined to defeat Pearson Specter, investigates the claim under direct orders from Eric Woodall (Željko Ivanek). Jeff Malone (D. B. Woodside) is hired by the firm after revealing the impending investigation against Pearson Specter to Jessica and Harvey.

Following back and forth takeover attempts from both Mike and Logan, Mike turns to Charles Forstman (Eric Roberts), a shady billionaire investor who agrees to invest to save Gillis Industries, under the condition that Mike cut Sidwell out, giving Sidwell nothing from the Gillis Industries case. Mike reluctantly agrees to the deal, but Forstman informs Sidwell about the secret condition, and Mike is fired. 

Louis prevents Forstman from investing in Gillis, but is forced to embezzle Forstman's money through international banks to avoid United States taxes. Jessica offers Louis a reward, and when she once again refuses his request to be name partner, he asks that Mike be rehired at the firm. Following the SEC investigation and Jessica finding out about Louis' wrongdoings, Louis resigns from Pearson Specter. He tries to take clients with him but is stonewalled by his non-compete clause. Mike gets Louis an interview with Robert Zane, but Zane adds the condition that Louis must poach one of Harvey's clients, which Mike prevents him from doing. When Mike visits Louis and doesn't recognize the Order of the Coif key that the top 10% of graduates receive at Harvard, Louis realizes Mike's secret and uses it to blackmail Jessica into rehiring him as a name partner. His pride in this victory leads to severe tension and problems with the firm. Louis and Mike have a physical altercation, after which Louis forgives Mike and manages to get the SEC to drop the case against Pearson Specter. 

Rachel hands Mike an ultimatum, and Mike moves back into his apartment with her. At the end of the season, Mike proposes to Rachel by giving her the ring Mike's grandmother had when she got married.

When Mike was struggling with a case, Donna illegally obtained evidence for him. When this is discovered, Harvey, Rachel, and Mike rush to prove the company's guilt so that the charges against Donna will be dropped. Harvey tells Donna that he loves her, but remains non-committal, leaving her confused. She helps Louis get over the death of his abrasive but loyal secretary Norma, and decides to leave Harvey to work for Louis, devastating Harvey.

Suits TV Show: Fifth Season Summary

Harvey hires a new secretary who appears the opposite of Donna, but proves herself capable. However, he still struggles with losing Donna.
Louis conspires with partner Jack Soloff (John Pyper-Ferguson) to change the firm's compensation structure and undermine Harvey, which gets him in trouble with Jessica as Soloff makes a power play. Jessica finds out that Soloff got advice from Daniel Hardman, and gives him one last chance at the firm. When Soloff tries to break ties with Hardman, though, the former managing partner finds ways to keep manipulating him.

Although jubilant about their engagement, Mike and Rachel keep quiet about it as they work to help Harvey deal with Donna's departure. Mike works a case with Robert Zane; Rachel decides not to sign a prenup suggested by her father. When Soloff proposes working a case with Mike, he initially refuses, not trusting the man who nearly got one of Louis's clients dropped. Mike and Soloff come to a mutual respect through the case, but this only causes more problems for Mike when Soloff recommends him for junior partner. The opposing counsel on Mike's first case is a former girlfriend who knows his secret, and Rachel is forced to handle the situation. Rachel is hurt by friction with her mother when Mike's secret forces her to give up her dream of a huge wedding.

Hardman threatens a hostile takeover of Pearson Specter Litt, with Soloff as his involuntary right-hand man. Louis fails to discover what Hardman is holding over Soloff. Harvey realizes Charles Forstman, now in jail, is funding Hardman as an act of revenge, and Forstman demands Harvey's resignation. When Hardman makes another move, Harvey agrees to resign and reveals the whole situation to the partners, leading them to vote to keep Jessica as managing partner. Mike also resigns after a difficult decision to protect his new family with Rachel, but is arrested before he can leave the office by two agents who accuse him of conspiracy to commit fraud.

Harvey and Mike find themselves facing the tenacity of Anita Gibbs as they fight to keep Mike out of jail. Donna returns to Harvey's desk to support them. Although Harvey decides to represent Mike in court, Mike argues that he needs to prove to the jury that he is a real lawyer by representing himself. As more and more people involved realize that the allegations are true, the risk of someone turning Mike in for a deal rises. Even though Rachel begs Mike to have faith in himself, he chooses at the final hour to turn himself in for a two-year prison sentence so that no one else will go to jail for his mistake. Harvey discovers that the jury verdict would have been not guilty, devastating everyone. Mike decides to marry Rachel before he leaves, but seeing that her parents felt forced to come to the wedding, he leaves the church to start his prison sentence. With Mike's confession, Pearson Specter Litt's non-compete clause is rendered invalid, and Louis, Jessica, and Donna return to the firm to find it completely empty of employees.

Suits TV Show: Season 6 Preview

Season 6 will air on Wednesday, July 13, 2016. Check out the first look at Suits Season 6 in the clip below

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Prenuptial Contract

Prenuptial Agreement Contract

prenuptial agreementantenuptial agreement, or premarital agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into before marriagecivil union or any other agreement prior to marriage. The content of a prenuptial agreement can vary widely, but commonly includes provisions for division of property and spousal support in the event of divorce or breakup of marriage. They may also include terms for the forfeiture of assets as a result of divorce on the grounds of adultery; further conditions of guardianship may be included as well.

A popular misconception is that prenuptial arrangements are only for the wealthy. Anyone who has personal assets, liabilities or property -- or children from a previous marriage -- should consider a prenup.

A prenuptial agreement can clarify the financial rights and responsibilities of each party during the marriage and the distribution of property in the case of divorce or death. Prenups can protect spouses from each other's debts. They can also spell out how one spouse's property can be passed on to children from a previous marriage. In addition, a prenuptial agreement can indicate whether one of the parties is to receive alimony.

Reasons Why You Should Get A Prenuptial Agreement:
  • Financial matters need to be faced.
  • Prenuptial agreements can preserve family ties and inheritance.
  • The financial well-being of children from a previous marriage can be protected. 
  • Personal and business assets accumulated before your marriage are protected.
  • A prenup puts financial expectations out on the table before your wedding.
  • Debt protection (keep debts separate) - debts created before marriage (loans, for example) as well as those afterwards (business debt guarantees, for example).
  • A prenuptial marriage agreement spells out which assets a spouse may want to give to children or other family members in the event of death.
  • In the event of a divorce, a prenuptial agreement eliminates battles over assets and finances.

For the prenuptial agreement to be considered valid, the couple is required to complete a formal agreement in the form of a written document. It should be made of their own free will and without coercion by another. It is recommended that a couple completes and signs their prenuptial agreement 30 days or more before their marriage ceremony. If the prospective husband or wife was pressured or rushed into signing the prenuptial agreement, it can be ruled void and inadmissible in a divorce proceeding. The couple is required to declare all of their assets and liabilities in their prenuptial agreement too. Though there is no dispute existing between them, it is recommended that both parties have the final prenuptial agreement reviewed by independent attorneys to make sure that the terms of the prenuptial agreement are reasonable and enforceable under state laws. Then the prenuptial agreement must be signed by the prospective husband and wife. Their signing of the prenuptial agreement must also be witnessed by two persons who then also sign the agreement.

Prenuptial agreement can also lessen the conflicts when the marriage ends in divorce. Those couples who have gone through a divorce having a prenuptial agreement will attest that it is less expensive for both of the parties since there are fewer conflicts while in the process of dissolving their marriage.

Couples obtain a prenuptial agreement for various reasons. The most obvious is handing the disparity in assets each partner is bringing into the marriage. Another important one, is the one bringing children into the marriage want to preserve their assets both in the cases of divorce or even death. It is always better to discuss signing prenuptial agreement at time when both parties have the other's interest at heart and not a time of conflict.

10 Famous Court Cases In History

List of 10 most famous Court Cases in History that had the most significant impact on history and society

1. Amistad Trials (1839-1840)

In 1839, fifty-three illegally purchased African slaves being transported from Cuba on the ship Amistad managed to seize control of the vessel. They killed two crew members and ordered the remainder to head for Africa. But by altering course at night, when the position of the sun did not reveal the ship's course, they sailed in a northeasterly direction. Eventually, the Amistad was intercepted by an American brig off the coast of Long Island. The two Spaniards who had enslaved the Africans were freed by the Americans, and the slaves were imprisoned. President Martin Van Buren, along with many newspaper editors, favored extraditing the Africans to Cuba. But abolitionists and other northern sympathizers won an American trial for them.

The improbable voyage of the schooner Amistad and the court proceedings and diplomatic maneuverings that resulted from that voyage form one of the most significant stories of the nineteenth century. When Steven Spielberg chose the Amistad case as the subject of his 1997 feature film, he finally brought it the attention the case had long deserved, but never received. The Amistad case energized the fledgling abolitionist movement and intensified conflict over slavery, prompted a former President to go before the Supreme Court and condemn the policies of a present Administration, soured diplomatic relations between the United States and Spain for a generation, and created a wave of interest in sending Christian missionaries to Africa.

2. Earp (O.K. Corral) Trial (1881)

The Old West's most famous gunbattle lasted all of about thirty seconds, but it left three men dead, three other men shot, and enough questions to occupy historians for more than a century.  The gunfight also led to criminal charges being filed against the three Earp brothers (Wyatt, Virgil, and Morgan) and Doc Holliday who, near the O. K. Corral on October 26, 1881, decided to enforce the law against four notorious "cowboys."  The hearing that followed the shoot-out considered the question of whether the Earps and Hollidays killed out of a justifiable fear for their own lives or simply to rid themselves of troublemakers and personal enemies.  After listening to weeks of testimony, Judge Spicer gave his answer (in favor of defense), but whether his answer was the right one remained a subject of considerable debate.

3. Three Trials of  Oscar Wilde (1895)

On November 30, 1900, the world lost one of its most important literary figures, Oscar Wilde. Wilde died from meningitis, a complication of an ear infection sustained in prison, where he was serving a two-year sentence for having committed "gross indecencies."
The events that led to Wilde's tragic fate are told in three trials that took place at Old Bailey in London in 1895. 

 4. Al Capone Trial (1931)

Al Capone, head of the most profitable crime syndicate of the Prohibition Era and mastermind of the notorious 1929 "Valentine's Day Massacre," seemed above the law.  In the end, however, Capone would be brought to justice not for murder, extortion, or bootlegging, but for failing to pay his income tax.  Credit for his conviction is due less to Elliot Ness and The Untouchables than to the dogged work of Bureau of Revenue investigator Frank Wilson and a clever surprise pulled by a federal judge, James Wilkerson.  Al Capone once complained about the bad reputation of his criminal enterprise: "Some call it bootlegging.  Some call it racketeering.  I call it a business."  The lesson of The People vs. Al Capone is that a profitable businessman, no matter how he earns his income, does have to pay his taxes.

5. Nuremberg Trials (1945-49)

Held for the purpose of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, the Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and 1949. The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers along with German industrialists, lawyers and doctors, were indicted on such charges as crimes against peace and crimes against humanity. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) committed suicide and was never brought to trial. Although the legal justifications for the trials and their procedural innovations were controversial at the time, the Nuremberg trials are now regarded as a milestone toward the establishment of a permanent international court, and an important precedent for dealing with later instances of genocide and other crimes against humanity.

6. Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby (1963)

Most agree that the trials and investigations surrounding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, are the most controversial in American history. The president was shot three times on Nov. 22, 1963.
Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the assassination after investigators discovered a rifle hidden between two boxes with Oswald's fingerprints on them, along with empty cartridges in the Texas Book Depository. Two days later, Jack Ruby shot and killed Oswald.
On March 14, 1964, Ruby was sentenced to death by electric chair for Oswald's murder. But the Texas Supreme Court overturned the ruling on the basis that the case's publicity obstructed Ruby's right to a fair hearing. Before he could be tried a second time, Ruby died from cancer in 1967.

7. The Nelson Mandela Trial (1963-1964) 

It's "the trial that changed South Africa."  In the fall of 1963, Nelson Mandela and ten other leading opponents of South Africa's apartheid regime faced trial for their lives. The charges, in what is often called "the Rivonia trial" for the Johannesburg suburb that was the location of the hideout for a militant wing of the African National Congress, were sabotage and conspiracy, and there was little doubt that but that Mandela and most of the other defendants would be found guilty.  Desperate times had dictated desperate measures. Standing in the dock at the Palace of Justice in Pretoria, Mandela announced that "the ideal of a democratic and free society" is one "for which I am prepared to die."

8. Miranda v. Arizona  (1966)

In Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court ruled that detained criminal suspects, prior to police questioning, must be informed of their constitutional right to an attorney and against self-incrimination. The case began with the 1963 arrest of Phoenix resident Ernesto Miranda, who was charged with rape, kidnapping, and robbery. Miranda was not informed of his rights prior to the police interrogation. During the two-hour interrogation, Miranda allegedly confessed to committing the crimes, which the police apparently recorded. Miranda, who had not finished ninth grade and had a history of mental instability, had no counsel present. At trial, the prosecution's case consisted solely of his confession. Miranda was convicted of both rape and kidnapping and sentenced to 20 to 30 years in prison. He appealed to the Arizona Supreme Court, claiming that the police had unconstitutionally obtained his confession. The court disagreed, however, and upheld the conviction. Miranda appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which reviewed the case in 1966. 

The Supreme Court ruled that the prosecution could not introduce Miranda's confession as evidence in a criminal trial because the police had failed to first inform Miranda of his right to an attorney and against self-incrimination. 

9. The Trial of Charles Manson  (1970-1971)

Charles Manson is a notorious American criminal who started and subsequently led what became known as the Manson Family - a violent commune that arose and eventually terrorized the western region of the United States in the late 1960s. As a result of this formation, Charles Manson was found guilty of conspiracy in conjunction with the Tate/LaBianca murders—these high profile murders were carried out by members of Manson’s disruptive clan.

Charles Manson was convicted of the aforementioned murders in alignment with the joint-responsibility rule, which makes each member of a conspiracy or a criminal organization guilty of crimes that were committed in alignment with the organization’s function. Manson was found guilty under this ruling because he encouraged and persuaded members of “The Family” to savagely murder a number of innocent victims.

10. O. J. Simpson Trial (1995)

Although the 1995 criminal trial of O. J. Simpson for the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman has been called "a great trash novel come to life," no one can deny the pull it had on the American public.  If the early reports of the murder of the wife of the ex-football-star-turned-sports-announcer hadn't caught people's full attention, Simpson's surreal Bronco ride on the day of his arrest certainly did--ninety-five million television viewers witnessed the slow police chase live. The 133 days of televised courtroom testimony turned countless viewers into Simpson trial junkies.  Even foreign leaders such as Margaret Thatcher and Boris Yeltsin eagerly gossiped about the trial.  When Yeltsin stepped off his plane to meet President Clinton, the first question he asked was, "Do you think O. J. did it?"  When, at 10 a.m. PST on October 3, Judge Ito's clerk read the jury's verdict of "Not Guilty," 91% of all persons viewing television were glued to the unfolding scene in the Los Angeles courtroom.

Lawyer Biography: Life History of Mahatma Gandhi

Brief History of Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, into a Hindu Modh family in Porbanadar, Gujarat, India. His father, named Karamchand Gandhi, was the Chief Minister (diwan) of the city of Porbanadar. His mother, named Putlibai, was the fourth wife; the previous three wives died in childbirth. Gandhi was born into the vaishya (business caste). He was 13 years old when married Kasturbai (Ba) Makhanji, through his parents arrangement. They had four sons. Gandhi learned tolerance and non-injury to living beings from an early age. He was abstinent from meat, alcohol, and promiscuity.

Gandhi studied law at the University of Bombay for one year, then at the University College London, from which he graduated in 1891, and was admitted to the bar of England. His reading of "Civil Disobedience" by David Thoreau inspired his devotion to the principle of non-violence. He returned to Bombay and practiced law there for a year, then went to South Africa to work for an Indian firm in Natal. There Gandhi experienced racism: he was thrown off a train while holding a valid first class ticket and pushed to third class. Later he was beaten by a stagecoach driver for refusing to travel on the foot-board to make room for a European passenger. He was barred from many hotels because of his race. In 1894, Gandhi founded the Natal Indian Congress. They focused on the Indian cause and British discrimination in South Africa. In 1897, Gandhi brought his wife and children to South Africa. He was attacked by a mob of racists, who tried to lynch him. He refused to press charges on any member of the mob. Gandhi became the first non-white lawyer to be admitted to the bar in South Africa.

During the South African War, Gandhi was a stretcher barer. He organized the Indian Ambulance corps of 300 Indian volunteers and hundreds of associates to serve wounded black South Africans. He was decorated for his courage at the Battle of Spion Kop. At that time Gandhi corresponded with Leo Tolstoy and expressed his admiration of the Tolstoyan principles of non-violence. In 1906 Gandhi, for the first time, organized a non-violent resistance against the Transvaal government's registration act. He called upon his fellow Indians to defy the new law in a non-violent manner and suffer the punishment for doing so. He was jailed on many occasions along with thousands of his supporters. Peaceful Indian protests caused a public outcry and forced the South African General J. C. Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi. However, Gandhi supported the British in World War I and encouraged Indians to join the Army to defend the British Empire, in compliance with the full citizenship requirement.

Back in India, Gandhi became active in the struggle for Indian Independence. He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress, becoming one of its leaders. In 1918, Gandhi opposed the increasing tax levied by the British during the devastating famine. He was arrested in Champaran, state Bihar, for organizing civil resistance of tens of thousands of landless farmers and serfs. In jail Gandhi was on a hunger strike in solidarity with the famine stricken farmers. Hundreds of thousands of his supporters gathered around the jail. Gandhi was addressed by the people as Mahatma (Great Soul) and Bapu (Father). He was released. Then he represented the farmers in negotiation with the British administration. His effort worked. The tax collection was suspended and all prisoners were released. He declared that all violence was evil after the Amritsar massacre of 379 civilians by British troops, which traumatized the Indian nation. As the leader of the Indian National Congress party Gandhi launched "Swaraj", a campaign for independence and non-cooperation with the British authorities. He urged Indians to replace British goods with their own fabrics and goods. He was imprisoned from 1922-1924, being released after an appendectomy. During that time a Swaraj party was formed by his anxious opponents; it later dissolved back into the Congress.

On New Year's Eve, December 31, 1929, the Indian National Congress unfurled it's flag of independence. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru issued the Declaration of Independence on January 26, 1930. Gandhi planned to achieve stability through the secularization of India, as the only way of uniting Hindus and Muslims in one peaceful nation. The religious divide was growing under the British colonial rule, which prospered from the monopoly on the salt trade. Everyone needed salt. Gandhi wrote to the Viceroy, Lord Irwin: "If my letter makes no appeal to your heart, on the eleventh day of March I shall proceed with co-workers of the Ashram as I can take, to disregard the provisions of the Salt Laws. I regard this tax to be the most iniquitous of all from the poor man's standpoint. As the Independence movement is essentially for the poorest in the land, the beginning will be made with this evil."

From March 12 to April 6, 1930, Gandhi made the famous Satyagraha ("Satya" - truth, "Agraha" - persuasion), The Salt March to Dandi. He walked on foot to the ocean in protest against the British salt monopoly and salt tax. He led thousands of Indians on a 240 mile (400 km) march from Ashram Ahmetabad to the village of Dandi on the ocean to make their own salt. For 23 days the two-mile long procession was watched by every resident along the journey. On April 6, Gandhi raised a grain of salt and declared, "With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British Empire." Gandhi's plan worked because it appealed to people in every region, class, religion, and ethnicity. The successful campaign led to the reaction of the British government and imprisonment of over 60,000 people for making or selling salt without a tax. The British opened fire on the unarmed crowd and shot hundreds of demonstrators. Gandhi was arrested in his sleep on the night of May 4th, 1930. Eventually the British government, represented by Lord Irwin, signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in March 1931, agreeing to free all political prisoners. Gandhi was invited to London as the leader of the Indian National Congress, but he was disappointed with the British attempts to destroy his influence by dividing him from his followers.

Gandhi campaigned to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he called Harijans (the children of God). He promoted equitable rights, including the right to vote in the same electorates as other castes. In 1934 Gandhi survived three attempts on his life. In 1936, he briefly resigned from the party, because his popularity was stifling the diversity of membership; ranging from communists and socialists to religious conservatives and pro-business groups. He returned to the head of the party with the Jawaharlal Nehru presidency. At the beginning of the Second World War Gandhi declared that India could not be a party to this war, unless it has independence. His "Quit India" campaign led to mass arrests on an unprecedented scale of struggle. He was arrested in Bombay (Mumbai) and was held for two years. During his captivity his wife passed away and his secretary also died. Gandhi was released in May of 1944, due to a necessary surgery. His campaign led to a release of over 100,000 political prisoners before the end of the war.

India won independence in 1947, followed by the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, and partition of India. Gandhi said, "Before partitioning India, my body will have to be cut into two pieces." About one million people died in the bloody riots until partition was reluctantly asserted by Gandhi as the only way to stop the Civil War. He urged the Congress Party to accept partition, and launched his last "fast-into-death" campaign in Delhi, calling for a stop to all violence. Gandhi also called to give Pakistan the 550,000,000 rupees in honor of the partition agreement. He tried to prevent instability and anger against India.
Gandhi was shot three times in the chest and died while on his way to a prayer meeting, on January 30, 1948. His assassins were convicted and executed a year later. The ashes of Mahatma Gandhi were split in portions and sent to all states of India to be scattered in rivers. Part of Gandhi's ashes rest in Raj Ghat, near Delhi, India. Part of Mahatma Gandhi's ashes are at the Lake Shrine in Los Angeles.

Interesting Facts About Mahatma Gandhi

His own interpretation of the Seven Deadly Sins were: Wealth without Work, Pleasure without Conscience, Science without Humanity, Knowledge without Character, Politics without Principle, Commerce without Morality, and Worship without Sacrifice.

He is referred to as "the father of the Nation" in India.
His birthday (October 2nd) is celebrated as a national holiday in India and is called 'Gandhi Jayanthi'.
The title "Mahatma" (meaning "great-souled") was given to him in 1915 by his friend Rabindranath Tagore. He never accepted the title because he considered himself unworthy of it.
Worked as a lawyer before turning to activism.

Mahatma Gandhi Quotes
"Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes."
"Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony."
"Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever."
"First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win."

"An eye for an eye will only end up making the whole world blind."

"The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong."

Lawyer Biography: Hassan Rouhani

Hassan Rouhani: The Diplomat Sheikh

Hassan Rouhani was born on 12 November 1948 in Iranian central province of Semnan.
Rouhani was admitted to the University of Tehran in 1969, and obtained his bachelor's degree in judicial law in 1972. Rouhani continued his studies in the West and graduated from Glasgow Caledonian University in 1995 with an MPhil thesis titled "The Islamic legislative power with reference to the Iranian experience", followed by a PhD degree in Law in 1999.
He has been a member of the Assembly of Experts since 1999, member of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Expediency Council since 1991, member of the Supreme National Security Council since 1989, and head of the Center for Strategic Research since 1992.
Rouhani has been also deputy speaker of the 4th and 5th terms of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis) and secretary of the Supreme National Security Council from 1989 to 2005. In this capacity, he was also heading Iran’s former nuclear negotiating team and was the country’s top negotiator with the EU-3 – UK, France, and Germany – on the Iran’s nuclear program.
As a young cleric Hassan Rouhani started his political activities by following Imam Khomeini during the beginning of the Iranian Islamic movement.
Since he was prosecuted by the SAVAK, Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti and Ayatollah Motahhari advised him to leave the country. Once outside Iran he made public speeches to Iranian students studying abroad and joined Khomeini upon arriving in Paris.
Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Hassan Rouhani, who had been engaged in revolutionary struggles for about two decades, did his best to stabilize the nascent Islamic Revolution and as a first step, he started with organizing the disorderly Iranian army and military bases.
He was elected to the Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis) in 1980. During five terms in the Majlis and for a total period of 20 years (from 1980 to 2000), he served in various capacities including deputy speaker of the Majlis (in 4th and 5th terms), as well as the head of defense committee (1st and 2nd terms), and foreign policy committee (4th and 5th terms).
Heading Supervisory Council of the IRIB from 1980 to 1983 was among the responsibilities he shouldered in the post-revolution era.
During the Iran-Iraq war, Mr Rohani was a member of the Supreme Defense Council (1982-1988), member of the High Council for Supporting War and headed its Executive Committee (1986-1988), deputy commander of the war (1983-1985), commander of the Khatam-ol-Anbiya Operation Center (1985-1988), and commander of the Iran Air Defense Force (1986-1991). He was appointed as Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces between 1988 to 1989.
After the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was amended and the Supreme National Security Council (SNSC) came into being up to the present time, he has been representative of the Leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, at the council.
Rouhani was the first secretary of the SNSC and kept it for 16 years (from 1989 to 2005). He was also national security advisor – to President Hashemi and President Khatami – for 13 years (from 1989 to 1997 and from 2000 to 2005).
In 1991, Rouhani was appointed to the Expediency Council and has kept that post up to the present time. He heads Political, Defense, and Security Committee of the Expediency Council.
In addition to executive posts, Hassan Rouhani has kept up his scientific activities. From 1995 to 1999, he has been a member of the Board of Trustees of Tehran Universities and North Region.
Rouhani has been running the Center for Strategic Research since 1991. Having the rank of research professor, he has written many books and articles in Persian, English and Arabic. He is the managing editor of three scientific and research quarterlies in Persian and English, which include Rahbord (Strategy), Foreign Relations, and Iranian Review of Foreign Affairs.
Hassan Rouhani was secretary of the Supreme National Security Council for 16 years. His career at the Council began under President Hashemi Rafsanjani and continued under his successor, President Khatami.
Mr Rohani and his team, whose members had been introduced by Velayati and Kharrazi as the best diplomats in the Iranian Foreign Ministry, based their efforts on dialogue and confidence building due to political and security conditions as well as strong propaganda against Iran.
As a first step, they prevented further escalation of accusations against Iran in order to prevent reporting Iran’s nuclear case to the United Nations Security Council. Therefore, and for the purpose of confidence building, certain parts of Iran’s nuclear activities were voluntarily suspended at several junctures.
In addition to building confidence, insisting on Iran’s rights, reducing international pressures and preventing Iran’s case from being reported to the UN Security Council, Iran succeeded in completing its nuclear fuel cycle and took groundbreaking steps.
Following the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad as president, Mr Rohani resigned his post as secretary of the Supreme National Security Council after 16 years on August 15, 2005, and was succeeded by Ali Larijani as the new secretary who also took charge of Iran’s nuclear case.
On Presidential Election day 14 June 2013. Hassan Rouhani, a moderate who is supported by reformists, was victorious. He was elected in the first round of voting with 50.71% of the vote. Nearly 36.7 million Iranians voted, 72.7% of eligible voters.
Interesting facts about Hassan Rouhani 
Although Hassan Rouhani had already appeared as a diplomat and taken part in many meetings and negotiations with foreign officials as Majlis deputy speaker or the secretary of the Supreme National Security Council, it was his leading role in the nuclear negotiations which brought him the nickname of “diplomat Sheikh.”

Hassan Rouhani chose the image of a key to symbolise his campaign. The cleric, who has risen from being a centrist figure to the country's president-elect, was supported by Iran's battered reformist movement.
Hassan Rouhani Quotes

"I thank God that once again rationality and moderation has shone on Iran... This victory is a victory for wisdom, moderation and maturity... over extremism."

“The Iran–US relationship is a complex and difficult issue. A bitter history, filled with mistrust and animosity, marks this relationship. It has become a chronic wound whose healing is difficult but possible, provided that good faith and mutual respect prevail. . . . As a moderate, I have a phased plan to deescalate hostility to a manageable state of tension and then engage in promotion of interactions and dialogue between the two peoples to achieve détente, and finally reach to the point of mutual respect that both peoples deserve.”