George Washington President Biography

George Washington Biography Timeline


George Washington was the very first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. It is interesting to look at the background which prepared him for the role of first President of the United States.

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732, at a time when America was one of the British Colonies. He was born on his family's Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia.

In his youth, Washington worked as a surveyor, and in this way he acquired invaluable knowledge of the terrain around his native Colony of Virginia, which helped him later. In 1749, he was appointed as surveyor of the newly created Culpeper County. In 1752, Washington joined the Virginia militia and was appointed as a district adjutant general, and appointed Major at the age of 20.
In April 1775, fighting broke out, which started the American Revolutionary War, also known as the American War of Independence. Washington had a sound military back-ground, which aided his appointment as Commander of the Continental Army. At this time The British had besieged Boston, and Washington placed artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city, and forced the British to evacuate it. In August 1776, the British launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York. Washington engaged the enemy for the first time at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war, a British victory which forced Washington out of New York and across New Jersey. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a counter-attack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River and captured nearly 1,000 Hessians. He followed this victory with another one at Princeton, which quickly raised the morale of his Continental army.
Not everything went Washington's way, as he suffered a defeat in the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. France then entered the war, in support of America. In December 1777, Washington's army camped at Valley Forge for six months, during which time 2,500 of the 10,000-strong force died from disease and exposure. However, he organized a full-scale training program, under the supervision of Baron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff.
In 1778, the British evacuated Philadelphia to New York, and Washington attacked them at Monmouth, driving them from the battlefield. Afterwards, the British headed towards New York, and Washington moved his army outside the city. He delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap the British army in Virginia. In 1783 the Treaty of Paris was signed, by which Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
At first, the United States was governed without a President under the Articles of Confederation, which were the forerunner to the Constitution. In 1789, Washington was unanimously elected as President, as he had gained a high reputation for his military success. He took the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America on April 30, 1789 at Federal Hall in New York City.
The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year, which was a large sum in 1789. Washington's initial reaction was to decline the salary. However, he later accepted it, on the grounds that otherwise the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals, who could serve afford to serve without salary. Washington ensured that the titles and trappings were suitably republican, as he had no wish to emulate the European countries, such as his preference for the title "Mr. President".
Washington proved an able administrator. Whilst he reluctantly served a second term, he refused to run for a third, and so established the policy for a president to serve a maximum of two terms, which later became law by the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
At this early period, there were no political parties in America, and Washington warned against them, on the grounds that they would cause conflict and stagnation. Washington was a man known for his high values, as evidenced by the famous story when he cut down his father's cherry tree, and confessed "I cannot tell a lie. It was I!" Therefore, it is not surprising that his Farewell Address of 1796 forms one of the most influential statements of American political values. It gives advice on the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people.
After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon, and devoted much time of his time to farming. On December 12, 1799, he went out on horseback in the snow to inspect his farms, and the next morning, awoke with a bad cold and a throat infection called quinsy. He died on the evening of December 14, 1799, at the age of 67. Modern doctors believe that Washington died largely because of his treatment, which included bloodletting, which resulted in a loss of five pints of blood.

George Washington Interesting Facts

George Washington a lawyerWashington acquired much legal training incidentally in connection with his duties as guardian and the many trusteeships and executorships which he assumed. He was, moreover, for years a justice of the peace of Fairfax County and not only heard minor cases, but also was a member of the County Court, which had an extended jurisdiction in equity as well as in civil and criminal law. In colonial days the justices were the county gentlemen, not trained lawyers, but the service was an excellent training in legal knowledge.

Although he helped plan the nation's new capital city that was named for him, he never lived there. New York City and, later, Philadelphia were the nation's capitals while he was president.

Washington's Birthday is a United States federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday of February in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and concurrent with Presidents' Day. Washington's Birthday is commonly referred to as Presidents' Day

George Washington Quotes
Be courteous to all, but intimate with few, and let those few be well tried before you give them your confidence.
If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.

The Constitution is the guide which I never will abandon.

Lawyer Career Facts


A lawyer career profile including job duties, education, skills, work environments,  job outlook and additional resources. Lawyer career can be very demanding. Some facts about lawyers are not so well known.
Lawyer Career

Lawyer as Career Choice


Lawyers (also called “attorney,” “counselor,” solicitor,” “barrister” or “advocate”) are advisors to clients who need legal counseling. They research, interview witnesses and inform the clients of their legal rights and obligations. They offer their opinion on how to handle legal situations. Lawyers can be trial attorneys representing one of the parties in civil and criminal cases. Trial work requires quick thinking and excellent oral communication skills.


Lawyer Career Facts

A law career is very interesting and can be challenging and demanding, with skills varying by occupation. Most legal jobs require strong written and oral communication skills to handle large amounts of complex reading and writing, as well as the ability to effectively present arguments in a clear and concise manner. Strong research skills are also a critical component of many jobs, requiring individuals to navigate through many sources of information. Other skills usually required include strong analytical, listening, customer service, time management, and organizational skills.

Lawyer Education

In some countries, law is taught by a faculty of law, which is a department of a university's general undergraduate college. Law students in those countries pursue a Master or Bachelor of Laws degree. In other countries lawyer education includes a four-year undergraduate degree and three years of law school (or four years in a part-time law school program). Lawyers must also pass a bar examination.


Work Conditions

Lawyers can work in private practice or in a law firm or solo practice. Lawyers also work in private industry, government, the judiciary, education, as a journalist or in public interest organizations.


Professional Associations and Regulation

A key difference among countries is whether lawyers should be regulated solely by an independent judiciary and its subordinate institutions (a self-regulating legal profession), or whether lawyers should be subject to supervision by the Ministry of Justice in the executive branch.
In most civil law countries, the government has traditionally exercised tight control over the legal profession in order to ensure a steady supply of loyal judges and bureaucrats.
Lawyers are always free to form voluntary associations of their own, apart from any licensing or mandatory membership that may be required by the laws of their jurisdiction. Is the most countries there is some kind of lawyer Bar Association.


Perceptions of Lawyers

Lawyers often have a poor Public Image. Media coverage concentrates on criminal defence lawyers. Lawyers defending unpopular causes creates image lawyers will do anything. Lawyers are portrayed earning high incomes and manipulating the law for the benefit of rich clients.
Lawyers are often privy to personal information of clients. Creates feelings of fear and resentment in clients. Furthermore lawyers are required to be objective and will not empathise nor sympathise.
Even Abraham Lincoln, that paragon of lawyerly virtue, complained of the public’s perception of lawyers when he practiced law.

What Is A Cybercrime Law?


What Is Cyber Law And Cyber Crime?


Cybercrime, also called computer crime,  the use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as committing fraud, trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, stealing identities, or violating privacy. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet, has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government.
Cybercrime Law, Internet law

While the internet has revolutionized business and communication almost overnight, laws regulating its use and misuse haven't developed as swiftly. But in the last few years more and more countrys regulating by law all areas of computer/internet abuse.

If you find yourself under criminal investigation for cyber crime or if you are common internet surfer you should know something about cyberlaws and legal barriers of using internet. Bellow are listed some of most common cyber crimes that you should know about. This will help you in avoiding any activity that may break the cyber law and put you in trouble.

Some of the most common and well defined internet crimes are:
  • Child pornography: Legal definitions of child pornography generally include sexual images involving prepubescents and pubescent or post-pubescent minors and computer-generated images that appear to involve them. Child pornography is considered a very serious crime and even the possession of one such picture can land you in prison.

  • Cyber stalking: Like the stalking in the real world, people can also stalk others over internet. Cyber stalking falls under the category of harassment and is a punishable offence.

  • Scams and fraud: Fraud is actually a very broad term and covers a lot of different actions and activities. Basically, these crimes are dishonest acts which are done in order to gain monetary benefits.

  • Trademark violations: Like it sounds, the trademark violations are those crimes where the registered trademark of one business is used by some other third party over the internet, with or without intent.

  • Copyright violations: Copyright violations are perhaps the most common online activity. Copying content from any other source on the internet and using it for personal purpose without citing and linking to the source is considered as copyright violation.

  • Computer and network hacking: These are the cyber crimes which are related to computer as well as network dealings. Such crimes include hacking, website defacing, creating and distributing computer viruses maliciously etc.

  • Credit card hacking: Credit card hacking also falls under fraud cases but it is now a very common crime therefore we would point it out separately. The credit card information of users is retrieved and hacked by unauthorized personals who intend to use it for personals gains.

  • Bank account hacking: Just like credit card hacking, the bank card hacking also involves access of bank account information of users. This information is then usually used for transferring funds to other accounts.
  • Cyber terrorism: Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources. As such, a simple propaganda in the Internet, that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.
The first law against cyber crime was enacted in 1984 and was called "The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act". CFAA is the most important computer statute in US as all the other statutes concerned with above problems come by modifying the CFAA.
In 1986 "Electronic Communication Privacy Act" was enacted which actually was an amended version of wiretap law. According to this law, intercepting, using, accessing or disclosing of transmitted or stored electronic communications without authorization is illegal.
A computer can be a source of evidence. Even when a computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, may contain records of value to criminal investigators.
Now that you know something about cyber crime and law you can avoid situations where you can be accused of cyber crime. Further, if you have any doubt or confusion then you can ask legal questions to cyber law attorneys over internet for free and clear all your doubts. It is always better to be informed than make mistake and then regret.

Civil Law And Criminal Law Differences

Compare Criminal And Civil Law

Law is divided up into two main categories called civil law and criminal law. Civil can be basically categorized as everything that is not criminal. These cases can include property, injury cases, property damage, and a number of other things.


Compare Criminal and Civil Law, Roman pillars on picture
One of the major distinctions in the law is between civil law and criminal law. Although there is sometimes significant gray area between these two branches of law, the major difference between the two is that civil law deals with disputes between individuals, whereas criminal law deals with individuals who have violated laws that dictate certain behaviors, and are therefore seen as an affront to society or the state.
In civil law, there are generally two parties to a lawsuit who are seeking a resolution to some sort of dispute. For example, a person who has been injured through another person's negligence, such as in a car accident, is seeking some sort of compensation for their injury and loss. It also could be a party who is suing another party over a contract dispute, such as a person who is suing a builder for not properly completing promised work, or perhaps the builder who believes he has completed the work properly but is not being paid. In these types of cases, both parties will present their cases, and the court will try to find an equitable solution to the dispute, usually by ordering one party to pay damages to another party. Civil law is a very broad area of the law and can arise out of many situations including employment relationships, landlord and tenant relationships, business transactions, and even family relationships and child custody.
Criminal law is very different. In criminal cases, one party is the defendant, or person who is accused of committing a crime, or violation of statute. The other party is generally a prosecutor who represents the state or the people. In a criminal case, the prosecutor must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the person committed the crime, and the defendant presents their defense. The court or a jury then decides if the person is guilty or not guilty and then will sentence the person to some form of punishment for their crime which is usually either a fine or imprisonment.
According to William Geldart, Introduction to English Law 146 (D.C.M. Yardley ed., 9th ed. 1984),
"The difference between civil law and criminal law turns on the difference between two different objects which law seeks to pursue - redress or punishment. The object of civil law is the redress of wrongs by compelling compensation or restitution: the wrongdoer is not punished; he only suffers so much harm as is necessary to make good the wrong he has done. The person who has suffered gets a definite benefit from the law, or at least he avoids a loss. On the other hand, in the case of crimes, the main object of the law is to punish the wrongdoer; to give him and others a strong inducement not to commit same or similar crimes, to reform him if possible and perhaps to satisfy the public sense that wrongdoing ought to meet with retribution.”

In addition to these major differences, there are many procedural differences between criminal and civil law. There are usually distinct rules of evidence, rules of procedure, and burdens of proof, and the cases are generally held in different courts. It is therefore important to be represented by an attorney who is experienced in practicing in the respective area of law in which you need representation.


Legal Definition Of Copyright

Education About Copyright Basics


What is copyright, in layman's terms? In the international law, copyright law extends certain protections for published and unpublished "works of authorship." This covers a variety of forms of expression, some of which are obvious - books, movies, songs - and some of which are not as well known outside their professional fields - computer code, software, architectural design. 
Copyright basics,legal definition of copyright, office paper

Difference between copyright, patent and trademark

The deciding factor is that the work must be fixed in a "tangible mode of expression." Choreography that has not been notated or recorded, for example, cannot be copyrighted until it is fixed in a durable medium. You can't copyright ideas. This requirement is one of the factors that distinguish copyright protection from the protection extended by a patent or a trademark. A patent is meant to cover an invention or a discovery in the abstract, rather than a concrete expression of an idea. 
For example, a patent is used to protect the method of manufacturing specifically as it safeguards the technological aspects of new or unique methods. In patents one can secure one's unique method of processing whereas in copyright, it gives one an exclusive right to own some idea, expression and even information. Copyrights© claim that the material belongs to some certain person and cannot be used without one's permission.   
Trademarks, on the other hand, are words, phrases or designs used to distinguish the goods of one party from those of others. (Service marks are more or less the same, but distinguish the providers of services; the term "trademark" is often used conversationally to cover service marks as well.) An artistic design is automatically protected by copyright, but can also be trademarked, which offers overlapping, but not identical, legal protection.

What does it mean to be a copyright holder?

A copyright holder has the following exclusive legal rights: 
  • The right to use his or her work, whether for financial gain or otherwise
  • The right to distribute the work or perform the work in public
  • The right to make copies of the work
  • The right to create a derivative work (such as a movie or sequel based off of a book)
  • The right to allow anyone else to exercise these rights
If any of these things are done without the express permission of the copyright holder, it would be considered copyright infringement.

Infringement of Copyright and Fair Use

The copyright law provides for a limited right called fair use, which allows unauthorized use of portions of the copyrighted work for specific purposes. The fair use privilege is especially important in allowing study, scholarship, commentary and criticism of copyrighted works.
Infringement of a copyright consists of:
  • Unauthorized reproduction
  • Distribution
  • Adaptation
  • Public performance
  • Public display

What kinds of things cannot be copyrighted?

The three main types of intellectual property, copyrights, trademarks, and patents, are each layers of protection, but the scope of that protection is quite different. Copyright registration is a type of protection available only to works of "original authorship" -- something that has been created by someone -- that are "affixed in a tangible medium" -- something that exists, either physically or digitally.

Some examples of things that do not meet this criteria are: 

  • Names
  • Titles, including book titles (although they could carry a trademark)
  • Short phrases
  • Logos, if they fail to carry any significant authorship
  • Recipes (while instructions might be copyrighted, a list of ingredients and volumes cannot)
  • Blank tables or charts
  • Calendars (but accompanying images can be protected as 2-D Artwork)
  • Inventions (this would be a patent)

In addition, anything taken from the public domain (older works whose copyrights have expired; works dedicated specifically to the public domain) or considered public knowledge (schedules of sporting events; standard measurements) would not be eligible for copyright protection.


What Is Medical Malpractice Definition!?

Medical Malpractice Meaning!


According to what statistics you read, medical malpractice causes between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths, and up to 1.5 million injuries each year. What exactly is medical malpractice meaning, though? The definition of medical malpractice varies depending on the source of the definition. Medical malpractice is an area of law, which cannot be defined in the one or two sentences commonly provided by a dictionary. 
Medical, malpractice, meaning, Surgeon, doctor, fail,fault, error, mistake

Medial malpractice is a term that refers to negligent treatment, lack of appropriate treatment or any other departure from the accepted standards of health/medical care and safety by a medical professional or health care provider that leads to harming a patient. It can include wrong diagnosis, failure to treat, improper treatment, delay in treatment, prescription error, lack of appropriate follow-up and much more.
A medical malpractice victim is entitled to recover damages and be compensated for the needless medical expenses incurred, lost services, lost wages, compensation for suffering & pain and punitive damages. To claim the compensation, the victim has to hire a medical malpractice attorney. A lawyer can help the victim to produce credible evidence of malpractice to substantiate the claim.
A plaintiff must establish four elements of the tort of negligence for a successful medical malpractice claim:


  1. A duty was owed: a legal duty exists whenever a hospital or health care provider undertakes care or treatment of a patient.
  2. A duty was breached: the provider failed to conform to the relevant standard care.
  3. The breach caused an injury: The breach of duty was a direct cause and the proximate cause of the injury.
  4. Damage: Without damage (losses which may be pecuniary or emotional), there is no basis for a claim, regardless of whether the medical provider was negligent. Likewise, damage can occur without negligence, for example, when someone dies from a fatal disease.

When a physician agrees to treat someone and a doctor & patient relationship is formed, a duty of care is naturally owed by the physician to the patient. The evidence of compensable injury is also easily identified and proved. However, the second and the fourth points are the ones that are difficult to prove, especially by a layman. It is not easy to prove that the physician did not deliver treatment and care conforming to the accepted standards. Moreover, the claim that the injuries to the plaintiff were caused directly by the physician's substandard or negligent care is contested strongly. The defendant can argue that external factors that are unrelated to the care extended to the patient were responsible for the injury.

The services of a medical malpractice attorney who is well aware of the medical problems as well as the medical law can help the victim of medical malpractice fight for his legal rights. The lawyer helps the claimant put forth his claim before the court in a complete and accurate manner. Most of these lawyers take cases on contingency basis, charging fee as a percentage of the compensation amount.

Medical malpractice law is a very specialized and technical field. There are several lawyers who handle cases associated with specific areas of medical negligence only. For instances, some attorneys take up cases related to surgical errors, while there are others who take up only birth trauma cases.


Best Legal TV Series


Legal profession is always interesting for viewers and TV producers are trying to create quality program but they are not always succesful. There's not many good lawyer series on TV but over the years I have watched some good and decent shows (list below). 


10 Best Lawyer TV Shows:


1. Suits (2011– ) IMDB

While running from a drug deal gone bad, Mike Ross, a brilliant young college-dropout, slips into a job interview with one of New York City's best legal closers, Harvey Specter. Tired of cookie-cutter law school grads, Harvey takes a gamble by hiring Mike on the spot after he recognizes his raw talent and photographic memory. Mike and Harvey are a winning team. Even though Mike is a genius, he still has a lot to learn about law. And while Harvey may seem like an emotionless, cold-blooded shark, Mike's sympathy and concern for their cases and clients will help remind Harvey why he went into law in the first place. Mike's other allies in the office include the firm's best paralegal Rachel and Harvey's no-nonsense assistant Donna to help him serve justice. 


2. Boston Legal (2004–2008) IMDB


Ethically-challenged attorney Alan Shore, formerly of Young, Frutt & Berluti, settles in at a wealthy and powerful firm focusing on civil cases. With some help from his friend and mentor, veteran attorney Denny Crane, Shore quickly makes his mark winning cases no one would take, often using less than honest methods. In doing so, he develops a rival in his colleague Brad Chase, who has been assigned to the office partly to keep an eye on the increasingly eccentric (and possibly senile) Denny Crane. Though his questionable conduct might make him a few enemies along the way, Alan's not one to be underestimated, nor will he let trivial things like honesty or integrity get in the way of winning a case.



3. The Practice (1997–2004) IMDB


"The Practice" is a drama about an unlikely group of lawyers that run a small law firm. Most remarkable is that these lawyers aren't all played by the usual super-handsome actors, but by people that might actually pass for lawyers in real life. This group of lawyers undergoes the usual array of romances, personal setbacks, and quarrels like in any drama serie. Nothing special, but certainly entertaining, and more importantly, almost always believable (as opposed to soap opera's where the most implausible things happen to the most implausible people all the time). 
The real meat of the series, however, are the court cases, of which there are usually two to three in one episode. These are almost always creative, believable (nothing like the nonsensical cases in "Ally McBeal") and intriguing and often really make me think: "what would I do if I were the lawyer, judge, or juror?".

4. Silk (2011– ) IMDB



Silk is a British television drama series produced by the BBC and first shown in 2011. Written by Peter Moffat, the series follows a set of barristers, and what they do to attain the rank of Queen's Counsel, known as 'taking silk'.






5. The Good Wife (2009– ) IMDB


Alicia Florrick is the wife of a former state attorney for Cook County. He has been imprisoned after a sex and corruption scandal. Alicia must deal with the public humiliation. She must also fend for her two children. After years of being a housewife and mother, she returns to work as a litigator at the law firm Stern, Lockhart & Gardner. She must now prove herself in the courtroom.






6. Ally McBeal (1997–2002) IMDB


The series, set in the fictional Boston law firm Cage and Fish, begins with main character Ally joining the firm (co-owned by her law school classmate Richard Fish) after leaving her previous job due to sexual harassment. On her first day Ally is horrified to find she will be working alongside her ex-boyfriend Billy Thomas - whom she has never gotten over - and to make things worse, Billy is now married to fellow lawyer Georgia, who later joins Cage and Fish too. The triangle between the three forms the basis for the main plot for the show's first three seasons. Although ostensibly a legal drama, the main focus of the series was the romantic and personal lives of the main characters, often using legal proceedings as plot devices to contrast or reinforce a character's drama. 



7. Judging Amy (1999–2005) IMDB



A family drama focused on three generations of women living together in Hartford, Connecticut. Amy Brenneman plays Amy Gray, who left New York City behind and now works as a family court judge. Karle Warren plays Lauren, Amy's daughter; Tyne Daly is Maxine, Amy's tough, opinionated mother.







8. JAG (1995–2005) IMDB



Commander Harmon Rabb, Jr. and Lieutenant Colonel Sarah MacKenzie are JAG lawyers, who together investigate and litigate crimes committed by Navy and Marine personnel. Occasionally, they engage in adventurous activities in order to solve their cases. With Rabb's fighter pilot background, and MacKenzie's good looks, they are a hot team both in and out of the courtroom.






9. 
Law & Order (1990–2010) IMDB



The show follows a crime, usually adapted from current headlines, from two separate vantage points. The first half of the show concentrates on the investigation of the crime by the police, the second half follows the prosecution of the crime in court.










10. Breaking Bad (2008– ) IMDB



To provide for his family's future after he is diagnosed with lung cancer, a chemistry genius turned high school teacher teams up with an ex-student to cook and sell the world's purest crystal meth. Lawyer Saul Goodman helps them to evade the law.










Good Lawyer Movies


What Is Asylum Application!?

How to seek political asylum!?


Asylum, in international law, the protection granted by a state to a foreign citizen against his own state. The person for whom asylum is established has no legal right to demand it, and the sheltering state has no obligation to grant it. Someone may ask for a political asylum when they are frightened to live in their own country. They will then go to another country. If they are allowed to live in the new country this is called political asylum.
airport, asylum, asylum seekers, asylum application

In modern legal systems the political asylum is one of the human rights affirmed by Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and a rules of international human rights law. 

The concept of asylum is embedded in international law; it is based on the idea that a country will not force a citizen of another country to return when that person can prove that he or she has suffered past persecution and/or has a well-founded fear of future persecution based on one of five grounds or a combination of grounds:

  • Race
  • Religion
  • Nationality
  • Membership in a particular social group
  • Political opinion
It is important to note that, generally, the persecutor must be the government or someone acting on behalf of the government. Alternately, depending on the circumstances, it may be a situation where violence against an individual is encouraged or sanctioned by the government, or the government refuses to step in and put a stop to it.

What are asylum seekers entitled to!?

Asylum seekers can also prove that they have a well-founded fear of future persecution based on events that have occurred to other people, as long as they are able to prove those things and also prove that they are in a situation where, if the persecutors found out they possessed the characteristic (race, religion, nationality, etc.) they would also be subject to persecution. Therefore, asylum seekers do not necessarily have to be persecuted in order to prove that they deserve asylum.

Asylum seekers must also be able to prove a well-founded fear of persecution. Do they, personally, have a reasonable fear that the persecution existed, will exist, or will continue? Furthermore, would another person in they situation also be in fear? Ways to prove this include: past incidents, incidents that have happened to others, reports from international human rights agencies about the conditions in asylum seekers country. Asylum seekers need to be able to show that they possess a belief or characteristic that the government wishes to punish, that government know asylum seekers possess this belief or characteristic (or could find out), and that government have the will and ability to punish you for it.

However, asylum seekers should be aware that an asylum claim is a difficult one. Governments of countries makes it very hard for individuals to pursue these claims, although many have done so successfully. If possible, asylum seekers should gather as much evidence as they can before pursuing this avenue. They must also understand that filing a "frivolous claim," where it is determined that they fabricated evidence, may result in permanent losing any immigration benefits.


Once a person is officially granted asylum, he can safely live and work inside the new country. After some time (defined by laws of asylum country) he can also file for permanent resident status. 


Work Labor Laws

Work Labor Laws Basics


If you are a business owner at present or if you are planning on becoming one, then you need to know much about labor laws. Also if you are employee you need to know your rights guaranteed by law. These are the laws that concern the rights of the employees and about the state of their relationship to their employers. Ignorance about these laws is not an excuse.Work Labor Laws, work laws
The employment relationship is one of the most important legal relationships in most people’s lives. Employment relationships serve not only as the primary source of support for most people and their families, but also as an important source of social relationships, personal identity, and personal fulfillment. The employment relationship poses some particularly interesting legal questions because it comprises both a collective interest between employers and employees in mutual success and individual interests in employers and employees benefiting at the expense of the other.
The study of work labor laws and employment law is divided into three general subject areas: employment law, labor law, and employment discrimination law.
Employment law generally refers to the law governing individual employment contracts and individual statutory rights and responsibilities. Common employment law topics include:
  • Establishing the employment relationship - Contract of employment
  • The employment-at-will doctrine and exceptions to this doctrine
  • Covenants not to compete
  • The protection of intellectual property
  • Minimum wage and maximum hour legislation
  • Unemployment compensation
  • Workers’ compensation
  • Occupational safety and health
  • Employee retirement income security

Labor law generally refers to the law governing union organizing, collective bargaining agreements, and the rights and responsibilities of unions and employers in a collective bargaining relationship. Collective labour law concerns the tripartite relationship between employer, employee and trade unions. Trade unions, sometimes called "labour unions"
Common labor law topics include:
  • The right to organize
  • Union organizing campaigns
  • Appropriate bargaining units and recognition elections
  • Collective bargaining and bargaining in “good faith”
  • Strikes and lockouts
  • Enforcing the collective agreement
  • The union’s duty to fairly represent the employees
Employment discrimination law generally refers to the law prohibiting discrimination in employment on the basis of such characteristics as race, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, religion, age or disability. Because it deals largely with individual rights and responsibilities, employment discrimination law is a subset of employment law, but it is generally deemed important enough and different enough in its issues and analysis that it is treated as its own subject area.