Mediation Basics

What is Mediation in Law!?


Mediation, as used in law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution, a way of resolving disputes between two or more parties with concrete effects. Typically, a third party, the mediator, assists the parties to negotiate a settlement. Disputants may mediate disputes in a variety of domains, such as commercial, legal, diplomatic, workplace, community and family matters.
Mediation in Law, Meeting

If you think you know nothing about mediation, be prepared to think again. Mediation is a concept so old that its origins are impossible to determine with authority. It is something we all encounter on a regular basis and in many different forms, which brings us to the all-important question: what is it?

Mediation is the concept of assisted negotiation. In other words, negotiations between two parties in which a third party is involved to help facilitate the satisfactory resolution of a dispute. For example, during a divorce settlement the two parties concerned may reach an agreement without involving a third party or they may choose to hire opposing legal representatives. As another alternative, they may choose to involve a single independent mediator.

There are several key qualities that are common to all mediation processes, and these help to differentiate mediation from adversarial processes such as those overseen by the courts. First and foremost, mediation processes are voluntary. The two parties to the dispute are able to withdraw from negotiations at any time and for any reason. This is crucial to the spirit and climate of effective mediation, which aims to find a solution which is agreeable to both parties. An independent mediator does not have the authority to impose conditions on either party - any measures taken are contingent on the explicit agreement of both parties.

Mediation processes are generally confidential, although this is not without the occasional exception. This means that both parties are usually free to voice personal concerns within the mediation forum without fear of repercussion, making it a particularly attractive option when sensitive disputes arise in the workplace. As a general rule, the materials and records produced during a mediation process are not admissible as evidence in court. An independent mediator is always obliged to disclose the nature and level of confidentiality guaranteed to mediation participants.

Impartiality is another central feature of mediation. Whilst the legal representatives involved in a court case are required to act in the best interest of their respective clients, by contrast an independent mediator is required to be without bias towards either party. This helps to ensure the collaborative nature of the negotiation process.

If the parties involved in a mediation process wish to obtain legal or expert consultation or advice, this is allowed - although expert advice is never determinative in mediation processes. In other words, a mediation process can be as informed as its participants want it to be.

Perhaps the greatest advantage of mediation over other forms of dispute resolution is that it encourages positive negotiations. Rather than attributing blame, as adversarial legal proceedings do, mediation processes empower their participants to make concessions and compromises that cater to both parties.

Best Law Schools In Europe

10 Best Law Schools In Europe


Below is a list of some of the very best Law Schools in the Europe. This list is made from the The Guardian University guide. Best 10 Law Schools are selected by author of this article.


List Of 10 Best Law Schools In Europe:


1. University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
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Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and lays claim to nine centuries of continuous existence. As an internationally renowned centre for teaching and research, Oxford attracts students and scholars from across the globe, with almost a quarter of our students from overseas. More than 130 nationalities are represented among a student population of over 18,000.
Oxford is a collegiate university, with 39 self-governing colleges related to the University in a type of federal system. Thirty colleges and all halls admit students for both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Seven other colleges are for graduates only; one has Fellows only, and one specializes in part-time and continuing education.




2. University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
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The University of Cambridge is rich in history - its famous Colleges and University buildings attract visitors from all over the world. But the University's museums and collections also hold many treasures which give an exciting insight into some of the scholarly activities, both past and present, of the University's academics and students. The University of Cambridge is one of the oldest universities in the world and one of the largest in the United Kingdom. Its reputation for outstanding academic achievement is known world-wide and reflects the intellectual achievement of its students, as well as the world-class original research carried out by the staff of the University and the Colleges.



3. London School of Economics and Political Science LSE (United Kingdom)
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The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) is the world’s leading dedicated social science institution. Many of the world's leading experts in their fields can be found at LSE. The School offers the best education there is in the major areas of the social sciences. It is a place of genuine intellectual excitement and cutting edge research.
Founded in 1895, LSE enjoys a global reputation for academic excellence. All of LSE's teaching and research is undertaken from a social science perspective, giving the institution a unique approach to otherwise common fields. Around 69% of LSE's students, and more than 40% of its academic staff, originate from outside the UK.


4. Leiden University (Netherlands)
Leiden University is the oldest university in the Netherlands. It was founded in February 1575, as a gift from William of Orange to the citizens of Leiden after they had withstood a long siege by the Spanish. It was the first university in the Netherlands to practise freedom of belief and religion, as reflected in the university's motto, Praesidium Libertatis, Bastion of Liberty. It was this atmosphere of freedom of speech that provided the right environment for philosophers such as Spinoza and Descartes to develop their ideas. 



5. Aarhus University (Denmark)


Aarhus is a young university with high aspirations. Aarhus University was established in 1928. Today Aarhus University is Denmark`s second largest university with approximately 39,000 students and 6,000 faculty staff (2013). Aarhus University belongs to the international elite. In most prestigious ranking lists of the world´s best universities. The main academic areas at the university are: Arts, Science and Technology, Health Sciences and the School of Business and Social Sciences. Aarhus University combines several institutional forms, including traditional university faculties and “university schools”, with their focus on professional and vocational education, for the mutual benefit of the two traditions.




6. Lund University (Sweden)


Lund University unites long-standing traditions with a modern, dynamic and highly international profile. With eight faculties, and a number of research centres and specialised institutes, Lund University is the largest provider of research and higher education in Sweden. The University was founded in 1666 and is one of the oldest universities in northern Europe. At present, about 35 000 undergraduate and nearly 10 000 graduate/postgraduate students are enrolled at Lund University. 
Lund University has evolved into the most international university in Sweden, co-operating worldwide with a great number of universities, university networks and research institutes. Annually some 3 000 international students choose to study in Lund. The University also takes a very active part in the educational and research programmes of the European Union.



7. Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)
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Trinity College Dublin (TCD) is recognised internationally as Ireland’s premier university and as one of the world's leading research-intensive universities. Founded in 1592 on the general pattern of the ancient colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, it is the oldest university in Ireland and one of the older universities of Western Europe.
The pursuit of excellence through research and scholarship is at the heart of a Trinity education. It provides a unique educational experience encompassing all major academic disciplines in the arts, humanities, engineering, science, human, social and health sciences. Students benefit from a scholar teacher model where they have the opportunity of being taught by world-leading experts in their field.


8. University Complutense Madrid

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The Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) is an institution with a long history and broad social recognition. The UCM aspires to be among the foremost universities in Europe, and to become a reference centre for Latin America.
With students as the focus of its activity, the UCM is committed to providing comprehensive training at the highest level. The quality of teaching is a hallmark of the University. Furthermore, Postgraduate programmes are their priority. Their Masters and Doctoral programmes have the necessary materials and human resources to guarantee excellence. The approach and the intensification of relations with society and with the productive environment will be a priority of the University in the coming years.




9. Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany)

The first semester at the newly founded Berlin university occurred in 1810 with 256 students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine, theology and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz. The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.W.F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, and famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck. Founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s. The university is home to 29 Nobel Prize winners.
After the unification of East and West Germany, the university was radically restructured and all professors had to reapply for their positions. The faculty was largely replaced with West German professors, among them the historian Heinrich August Winkler. Today, Humboldt University is a state university with a large number of students (37,145 in 2003, among them more than 4,662 foreign students).


10. University of Bologna


The University of Bologna (Italian: Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a university located in Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088. As of 2000 the University's motto is Alma mater studiorum (Latin for "nourishing mother of studies"). The University has about 100,000 students in its 23 schools. It has branch centres in Imola, Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires. Moreover, it has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. It is widely recognised as the oldest university in continuous operation, considering that it was the first to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters which came to define the institution.




Advice On Making A Will

How to do a last will and testament!?

testament, a will, document, paper

What is a last will?

A will is a legal document that sets forth your wishes regarding the distribution of your property and the care of any minor children. 

Why make a will

By making a will, you are simply ensuring that your final wishes are legally recognised. More importantly though, writing your last will and testament gives you the certainty and peace of mind from knowing that your property and possessions will be passed on exactly as you want on your death. Without making a will, the state will decide who gets what from your belongings and how much, so those who you would want to benefit may get far less than you hoped. Like most people, you might assume that your property would automatically go to your spouse and children on your death. In fact, their share would be decided by the laws of intestacy which could mean a potentially long and expensive probate process for those hoping to benefit from your estate.
Also if you have minor children, a will lets you provide for their care. If you have children from a prior marriage, even if they are adults, your will can dictate the assets they receive. Creating a will also minimizes tensions between survivors. Relatives battling over your possessions can weaken what may have otherwise been a strong family. 

Types of last will and testament


Self-Proving/Testamentary Will: A self-proving will, also know as testamentary will, is the traditional type of will with which most people are familiar. It is a formally prepared document that is signed in the presence of witnesses.

Holographic Will: Holographic wills are written without the presence of witnesses. They rarely hold up in court.

Oral Will: Oral wills are spoken testaments given before witnesses. They are not widely recognized from a legal perspective.

Living Will: living will has nothing to do with the distribution of assets, but rather sets forth your wishes for medical care in terms of life support should you be incapacitated. 


How to make a will


When you are ready to prepare a will, compile a list of your assets and debts. Be sure to include the contents of safe deposit boxes, items of sentimental value, family heirlooms and other assets that you wish to transfer to a particular person or entity. If your estate is substantial (ranging in the millions of dollars) or your situation is legally complex, you may wish to enlist the services of an attorney. If so, be sure to work with someone who is familiar with your state's laws and has extensive experience writing wills.

Leaving last will to executor


Creating your will is the first step in a two-step process. The second step is putting your will in the hands of your executor or professional advisor. Remember, your wishes can only be carried out if they are known. Putting your will in capable hands ensures that it will be available when it is needed.


You can always change your last will. Simply write a new will to replace the old one, or make an addition using an amendment. It is best to make changes when you are of sound mind and in good health so your wishes in last will can't be disputed.

Zimmerman Case -Florida

George Zimmerman Trayvon Martin Murder Case

George Zimmerman
George Michael Zimmerman, born October 5, 1983, was a part-time student at Seminole State College and a neighborhood watch captain at the Retreat at Twin Lakes gated community in Sanford at the time of the shooting. He is married to Shellie (Dean) Zimmerman and is the son of Robert and Gladys Zimmerman. His father is German descent and his mother is Peruvian with some black ancestry. Zimmerman's voter registration record lists him as Hispanic and a registered Democrat.

Trayvon Benjamin Martin, born February 5, 1995, was a 17-year-old African-American high school student who lived in Miami Gardens, Florida with his mother Sybrina Fulton. In February 2012, Martin was visting his father Tracy Martin in Sanford, Florida after receiving a ten-day suspension from Krop Senior High School. The suspension stemmed from the discovery of drug residue in Martin's book bag.
On February 26, 2012. George Zimmerman, a neighborhood watch captain in Sanford, Florida was on patrol. He calls 911 to report "a suspicious person"in the neighborhood. He is instructed not to get out of his SUV or approach the person. Zimmerman disregards the instructions. Moments later, neighbors report hearing gunfire. Zimmerman acknowledges that he shot Martin, claiming it was in self-defense. In a police report, Officer Timothy Smith writes that Zimmerman was bleeding from the nose and back of the head.
On June 24, 2013 The trial began with opening statements.
After 5 weeks of trial the jury can find Zimmerman guilty of second-degree murder, guilty of manslaughter, or not guilty in the shooting death of Trayvon Martin.
If the jury finds Zimmerman guilty of second-degree murder, he faces a maximum of life in prison. If they find him guilty of manslaughter, he faces a maximum 30-year prison sentence.
The verdict will be read in Circuit Court Judge Debra Nelson's courtroom at the Seminole County courthouse about an hour after the jury decides.
That's because some time is needed for the attorneys and others in the case to assemble back in the courtroom to hear the verdict. Court officials have said they will allow as much as one hour for that to happen.
During the trial, jurors heard from an array of witnesses, including police, forensics experts and Zimmerman's neighbors at the Retreat at Twin Lakes, where he shot Trayvon amid a struggle minutes after reporting the teen to police as suspicious. 
No one who testified saw how the fatal conflict between the Neighborhood Watch volunteer and the high school junior from Miami Gardens began.

George Zimmerman Treyvon Martin case verdict

The jury in the George Zimmerman murder trial has found Zimmerman not guilty in the death of Trayvon Martin.

Biography Of Maximilien Robespierre

Robespierre Biography - French Revolution


Maximilien Robespierre is most famous, and most reviled of all of the Jacobin leaders of the French Revolution, Robespierre was a provincial lawyer from Arras, where he was known as an advocate for the poor. In April, 1789, he was elected deputy to the Estates General for the Third Estate. Upon arriving in Paris, he promptly joined the Breton Club, which later became known as the Jacobin Club. Robespierre first came to prominence with a speech attacking the luxurious lifestyles of the Bishops and their lack of charity toward the poor. Subsequently, he became one of the leading spokesmen of the Left in the Constituent Assembly over the next two years, during which, as a democrat and a liberal, he supported right for everyone to vote and opposed the death penalty.
Robespierre Biography - French Revolution
Barred from seeking election in 1791 to the new Legislative Assembly by the self-denying ordinance, which he supported, he concentrated his political activities in the Jacobin Club. From there, he opposed France’s popular move to war on the grounds that war would undermine the work of consolidating the revolution at home and that French troops would be greeted with hostility by the peoples they claimed to liberate. He also led the Jacobin campaign for the removal of the King and the election of a National Convention on the basis of adult male right to vote. In September of 1792, he was elected to the newly-formed National Convention, where he called for the speedy execution of the King on the grounds that he had already been judged by the nation. Joined by influential members of the Convention like Danton, Georges, Marat, Jean-Paul and Desmoulins, Camille in his condemnation of Louis XVI, Robespierre averted the Girondins’attempt to save the French monarch. With the deterioration of France’s military fortunes, Robespierre played an important role in the fall of the Girondins (the more moderate revolutionaries led by Brissot). He was appointed to the Committee of Public Safety in July, 1793 and became its dominant figure until his fall a year later.
Confronted by external invasion and internal rebellion, Robespierre abandoned his liberal support for freedom of speech and the press. Instead, he maintained that the Revolution should be guided by a single will. His fear of aristocratic plots led him to support the repressive measures that came to be known as “The Terror” and led to the suppression by guillotine (device designed for carrying out executions) of his opponents on both his right and his left. He viewed many of his former allies as rivals and on 30 March 1794, he had Danton and Desmoulins detained and guillotined on 5 April. It is estimated that about 40,000 people died during this 15 months period.
While best known for the Terror, the Committee of Public Safety under Robespierre’s leadership drafted laws involving peasant landholdings, industry, education, and public assistance. Though generally supportive of economic liberalism, it imposed price controls in the form of the general maximum of prices and wages. By the end of his tenure, the Committee had defeated the Revolution’s internal and external opponents and was once again poised to resume the offensive.
Robespierre was heavily influenced by Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, and throughout his political activities he was guided by the ideal of a republic of virtue composed of medium and small property-holders, uncorrupted by wealth or poverty. Robespierre’s own reputation for personal probity was such that he became known as “the Incorruptible.” The capstone of this activity was his failed attempt in May-June 1794 to replace Catholicism and combat atheism with a deistic civil religion, the Cult of the Supreme Being, dedicated to the immortality of the soul and inculcation of the social virtues among the citizenry.
As a result of divisions within the Committee of Public Safety and between the Committee and the Convention, Robespierre and several of his colleagues were overthrown in the coup d’etat of 9 Thermidor. In a conspiracy mainly led by Tallien and Barras, the Convention unanimously voted the arrest of the triumvirate, Robespierre, Couthon and Saint-Just, Louis-Antoine de. They were guillotined the following day on July 28, 1794.

Robespierre Interesting Facts


He was in admiration before the big ideas of freedom and equality brought by the "Lumieres" or enlightment, a movement of French philosophers (Voltaire, Rousseau, etc) who wanted to change the world. His virtues made him earn the nickname of the incorruptible, as he never gave up against the huge task of reforming France's policy.

He chose to be part of the Jacobins group, one of the more radical movements of the new assembly, and beame rapidly one of their most respected members. 

In 1791, he participated in the writing of the Declaration of the rights of man and citizen, of the most important civil text ever wrote in France, a foundation of the French constitution. He was opposed to the death penalty and to slavery, which he considered barbaric. Pretty amazing knowing that death penalty was abolished only in 1981.

Robespierre Quotes


"The secret of freedom lies in educating people, whereas the secret of tyranny is in keeping them ignorant."

"To punish the oppressors of humanity is clemency; to forgive them is cruelty."

"The king must die so that the country can live."

"Terror is only justice: prompt, severe and inflexible; it is then an emanation of virtue; it is less a distinct principle than a natural consequence of the general principle of democracy, applied to the most pressing wants of the country."

"Citizens, did you want a revolution without revolution?"


Contracts In Law

What is a legal contract by definition?


Contract in law is an agreement between two parties that creates an obligation to do something or refrain from doing a particular thing. The purpose of a contract is to establish the terms of the agreement by which the parties have fixed their rights and duties. Courts must enforce valid contracts, unless one party has legal grounds to bar enforcement.
Contracts, Law, Legal, Document


Contracts in law are promises that the legal system will enforce. The law provides remedies if a promise is breached or recognizes the performance of a promise as a duty. Contracts arise when a duty does or may come into existence, because of a promise made by one of the parties. To be legally binding as a contract, a promise must be exchanged for adequate compensation. Adequate compensation is a benefit or detriment which a party receives which reasonably and fairly induces them to make the promise/contract. For example, promises that are purely gifts are not considered enforceable because the personal satisfaction the grantor of the promise may receive from the act of giving is normally not considered adequate compensation. Certain promises that are not considered contracts may, in limited circumstances, be enforced if one party has relied to his detriment on the assurances of the other party.
Elements needed to have a valid and legally binding contract
  • The first element to the creation of a contract is that both parties must be of sound mind, and they must be legally able to enter into a contract. Minors cannot enter into most contracts without parental consent. However, minors can independently enter into contractual agreements for basic necessities, such as food, clothing, and shelter. Minors can also sign contracts for student loans. Individuals under the influence of drugs or alcohol cannot enter a contract. Also, individuals who suffer from a mental illness that prevents them from making rational decisions cannot enter a legally binding contract.
  • The second aspect of a contract is compensation. Compensation refers to both the payment made and the service or product received. You cannot have a binding contract that requires one or both parties to commit an illegal action. If you hire a hit man, have him sign a contract or enter a verbal agreement, and he fails to perform the murderous task you specified, you cannot take him to court for breach of contract. You also cannot have a valid contract where the compensation is an illegal item, such as drugs or stolen merchandise. For the contract to be valid, both parties must receive some sort of compensation. There cannot be a valid contract wherein only one person receives money or services. The compensation must be reasonably equitable as well, in order for the contract to be upheld in a court of law.
  • The third aspect of a contract is a meeting of the minds. Both parties must fully understand the agreement. One way to ensure that a true meeting of the minds has been accomplished is to put as many details as possible into the contract. For example, if you are trying to sell a car, describe it in minute detail. This will prevent your buyer from protesting that they thought they were buying a car in a different color or with fewer miles. Details will help strengthen your contractual agreement.

How Is a Contract Interpreted?


The court reads the contract as a whole and according to the ordinary meaning of the words. Generally, the meaning of a contract is determined by looking at the intentions of the parties at the time of the contract’s creation. When the intention of the parties is unclear, courts look to any custom and usage in a particular business and in a particular locale that might help determine the intention.

What Types Of Lawyers Are There!?

Different Kinds Of Lawyer


There are many different types of lawyers available that it can be hard to decide just what kind you need. Every lawyer specializes in a specific field, and knowing your lawyer's field of expertise will ensure that you get the help you need.


lawyers
Divorce Lawyers: Divorce Lawyers can help you with legal issues like termination of a marriage by divorce, dissolution or annulment and determinations on child custody, child support, spousal support and the division of marital property and assets including pension or retirement plans or savings and family business interests. Legal issues include jurisdiction and venue, procedure and grounds for divorce such as adultery, mental cruelty, abandonment, irreconcilable differences or irretrievable breakdown of the marriage, custody and support, and separation or property division agreements.

Civil Lawyers: they deal with businesses and individuals. Civil Litigation involves a lawsuit resulting from a dispute between private parties (individuals or corporations); civil litigation is concerned with matters such as breach of contract, debt collection, malpractice and personal injury.

Bankruptcy lawyers can help businesses and individuals file for bankruptcy protection; they can help them keep their cars and homes and other personal items.

Family lawyers offer a wider variety of services, on almost all issues family-related, for example legal relationships between family members; issues in family law include marriage contracts, divorce, child custody, adoption, wills and estate planning. 

Criminal Lawyers: they work with people accused of committing crimes. Criminal Law governs crimes against the public and members of the public (as opposed to civil litigation which deals with private disputes); a criminal lawyer may work for the government as a prosecutor or represent the accused person as a defence lawyer.

Accident Lawyers: they help accident and injury victims get the compensation they deserve. Accident lawyers often work in a no win no fee fashion.

Malpractice Lawyers: this type of lawyers can help people that are the victims of medical malpractice. Some doctors don't do their job in an effective or safe manner, often with disastrous results. These lawyers help victims get compensation for the life-altering circumstances they are under.

Immigration Lawyers: they work on all immigration issues; they often work with various government agencies.

Injury Lawyers: These lawyers help victims get compensation for almost any kind of accident, such as a car wreck, construction accident, or even elder care home abuse.

Tax Lawyers: they help their clients complete their tax returns and assist in other tax issues.
Tax lawyers may advise corporations on tax strategies and implications of business transactions, or counsel individuals on matters such as legal wills and estate planning.

Weird And Unusual Laws


There are some weird and unusual laws, usually from an earlier day and age, that remain on the books at the country or local levels. 
Weird,Unusual Laws,nonsence laws

List of 15 weird and unusual laws:

1. Italy It’s an offense in Florence to eat or drink while sitting on church steps or within a church courtyard.

2. Marijuana is outlawed in Jamaica. Since 1913, Jamaican law has stated that the cultivation, use or possession of marijuana is illegal. People caught with even a small amount of the plant can face a lengthy prison sentence.

3. Singapore No hugging without permission. Connecting on unsecured Wi-Fi hotspots means hacking. Chewing gum is illegal.

4. Barcelona In this Spanish city, it’s against the law to wear swimming attire on public streets.

5. In Bahrain, male doctors only legally examine a woman’s genitals through a mirror.

6. In England, it is an act of treason to place a postage stamp bearing the Queen upside down. 

7. In France, it’s illegal to name a pig Napoleon.

8. In Tibet, monks wishing to reincarnate must first register with a government agency.

9. In Israel, you could be prosecuted for picking your nose on Sunday. 

10. In Turkey, it is illegal for a man above 80 yrs to become a pilot.

United States

11. Kentucky A female shall not appear in a bathing suit on any highway within this state. section 1376m-1, 1376m-2 Repealed: January 1, 1975 

12. Maryland In Baltimore, It is illegal to take a lion to the movies.

13. New York   It is against the law to throw a ball at someone's head for fun.

14. It is against the law in Connecticut for a man to write love letters to a girl whose mother or father has forbidden the relationship.

15. Ohio  In Oxford, It is unlawful for a woman to appear in public while unshaven. This includes legs and face.


Lawyer Biography: Fidel Castro Short Biography

Fidel Castro Short Biography


Fidel Castro has been the longest serving head of state in the world. This despite a concerted effort by the CIA and the United States Government to overthrow him or even assassinate him by what ever means available.
Fidel Castro, Short Biography
photographer's name/ABr. — A Agência Brasil 
Fidel Castro was born on farm in Cuba on August 13, 1926. Fidel was born out of wedlock and his father, Angel Castro, did not officially claim him as his son. While growing up he went by the name of Fidel Ruz. Later, his father would marry his mother and Fidel would change his last name to Castro. 
Castro attended Jesuit boarding schools. Fidel was smart, but wasn't a great student. He did excel in sports, however, especially baseball. 

In 1945 Fidel Castro entered law school at the University of Havana. At University he became involved in politics and protesting against the current government. He thought the government was corrupt and there was too much involvement from the United States. 

In 1952 Fidel Castro ran for a seat at Cuba's House of Representatives. However, that year General Fulgencio Batista overthrew the existing government and cancelled the elections. Castro began to organize a revolution. Fidel and his brother, Raul, tried to take over the government, but were captured and sent to prison. He was released two years later. 

Fidel Castro did not give up, however. He went to Mexico and planned his next revolution. There he met Che Guevara who would become an important leader in his revolution. Castro and Guevara returned with a small army to Cuba on December 2, 1956. They were quickly defeated again by Batista's army. However, this time Castro, Guevara, and Raul escaped into the hills. They began a guerrilla war against Batista. Over time they gathered many supporters and eventually overthrew Batista's government on January 1, 1959. 

In July of 1959 Castro took over as leader of Cuba. He would rule for nearly 50 years. 

Fidel Castro had become a follower of Marxism and he used this philosophy in creating a new government for Cuba. The government took over much of the industry. The Castro government gradually expropriated all foreign-owned private companies after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Most of these companies were owned by U.S. corporations and individuals. Bonds at 4.5% interest over twenty years were offered to U.S. companies, but the offer was rejected by U.S. ambassador Philip Bonsal, who requested the compensation up front .Only a minor amount, $1.3 million, was paid to U.S. interests before deteriorating relations ended all cooperation between the two governments.

The United States tried several times to remove Castro from power. This included the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 ordered by President John F. Kennedy. In this invasion, around 1,500 Cuban exiles trained by the CIA attacked Cuba. The invasion was a disaster with the majority of the invaders captured or killed. 

Soon after Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Fidel Castro allied his government with the Soviet Union(USSR). He allowed the USSR to place nuclear missiles in Cuba that could strike the United States. After a tense stand-off between the United States and the Soviet Union that nearly started World War III, the missiles were removed. 

Fidel Castro's health began to fail in 2006. On February 24, 2008 he quit active politics leaving the office of the presidency of Cuba to his brother Raul. 

Cuban state television announced after midnight on November 26, 2016, that Castro had died in Havana.

Interesting Facts about Fidel Castro

Castro is known for his long beard. He almost always appears in public in green military fatigues.

Castro's Cuba relied heavily on aide from the Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the country suffered as it tried to survive on its own.

Fidel was seen for years smoking cigars, but he quit in 1985 for health reasons.

Fidel Castro is famous for his long speeches. He once gave a speech that lasted for over 7 hours!

Fidel Castro LawyerCastro was admitted to the bar in 1950 after studying at the University of Havana. He had his own firm for a time - Azpiazo, Castro & Resende.

Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001 for his work on behalf of developing nations.


Fidel Castro Famous Quotes


"I began revolution with 82 men. If I had to do it again, I do it with 10 or 15 and absolute faith. It does not matter how small you are if you have faith and plan of action."

"Capitalism has neither the capacity, nor the morality, nor the ethics to solve the problems of poverty." 

"The Cold War is over, but the arms race goes on and nuclear and military hegemonism perpetuate themselves. How long shall we wait for the total removal of all weapons of mass extermination... in international relations?" 

Personal Injuries Law Basics

Personal Injuries Law

Every year millions of people are injured in accidents and these accidents can occur at home, in their cars, at work place, or outdoors. Generally these accidents are result of someone else's fault and in such cases the person who is not at fault has the right to make compensation.
Personal Injuries,law, lawyer

Personal Injuries Law Definition 

Personal injury is a legal term for an injury to the body; mind or emotions. The term is most commonly used to refer to a type of tort lawsuit alleging that the plaintiff's injury has been caused by the carelessness of another. Personal injuries could lead to death. Personal injuries include; psychological illnesses caused by stress at work, injuries caused in a traffic accident, injuries received because of faulty goods or services or injuries caused if you trip over paving stones. Other are a psychological illness suffered because of abuse as a child, injuries caused by medical negligence and physical or psychological injuries sustained by a victim in the course of a crime.

Personal Injuries Law

According to personal injury law the person who has been a victim or survivor for death, harm or injury will get compensation. The damage here might be physical damage, emotional, or both. There are various things that are involved in personal injury compensation such as:
  • Physical and emotional sufferings.
  • Medical bills
  • Death of a family person

Types Of Damages:

There are two types of damage that are included in personal injury damage awards and they are compensatory damages and punitive damages.
Compensatory damages are such in which the victim is provided with a sufficient amount of compensation on the basis of what he or she would be if the damage or accident had never occurred. There are two sub classifications of compensatory damages and they are special damages and general damages. These are called as monetary losses and non-monetary losses respectively.
Also, there are Punitive damages and these type of damage are not designed to give compensation to the injured person, but in this case defendant is punished for inflicting the victim's injuries. Such damages are not awarded in all the personal injury cases. Apart from this these damages are not considered until first type i.e. compensatory damage has been ordered.

Personal Injury Lawyer:

Although, the personal injury law is little bit complicated, but people who are injured in accidents can take help from the personal injury claim lawyer. Lawyers who have years of experience have knowledge and skills and they can guide the injured person in the process of making a claim. 
In case you are injured in an accident, then you can make have the right to take a legal action to make a claim. You should take advice from a personal injury lawyer who is specialized in these types of cases. It is necessary to contact a lawyer as soon as possible after being injured in an accident as there are certain time limits for making a compensation claim. 
Lawyer will ask you some questions for the process of making a claim of your case and few of them are as follow:
  1. Date of accident, place of accident and time of the accident or injury.
  2. Contact details of the witness present at the time of the accident.
  3. Complete detail of your damages and injury which will include your medical diagnosis as well as treatments.
  4. Proof that is required to show the loss in your earnings as a result of your injury.
  5. Documents those are helpful in making a claim or any evidence and photographs of the accident.

Lawyer after analyzing your case can tell you the chances of winning the claim in case if any and the amount of claim in compensation that you can get after making a claim.

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2. Injury In the second Commercial feelings of one guy gets hurt on very strange way. This time attorney can't help him.

3. "I'm Campbell Alexander and I'll fight for you, seriously!" Directed by Rich Ceraulo, this mock commercial demo was created for "My Sister's Keeper", but was eventually cut from the film due to time constraints. It was created by writing partners, Alissa Dean and Rich Ceraulo.